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Author Topic: Travels with Alexander the Great  (Read 1516785 times)

Offline magicmountain

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4095 on: March 09, 2016, 07:22:18 PM »
Hi, Jo-let's retire to Asia and find the damn thing! I'll be mostly entertainment, you understand.

You and me both! What a great idea!
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Offline magicmountain

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4096 on: March 30, 2016, 10:20:08 PM »
Alexander the Great and brain injury



Alexandra Morris

Alexandra Morris has always been fascinated with all things ancient. For her master’s degree in Egyptology she wrote her thesis on “The Physically Disabled of the Ancient World, Particularly in Greece and Egypt” from the University of Pennsylvania

Morris is currently working on a paper that suggests that Alexander the Great’s previously unexplained behavioral shifts and poor decisions, usually attributed to alcoholism, were actually the result of chronic brain injuries from repeated concussions suffered in battle and noted in the historical record.

She has been invited to present her findings at the Athens Institute for Education and Research: Symposium on Alexander the Great, to be held from June 27 to 30 this year in Athens, Greece. Her paper is titled “Alexander the Great: Head to Head with CTE (chronic traumatic encephalopathy.)”

“Alexander the Great has always been a passion of mine, maybe partly because of our similar names, and I always found him fascinating. It always bothered me that he was portrayed by historians as an alcoholic and a megalomaniac. But I believe his behavior may have come from traumatic brain injury. He took some major hits that were so hard they actually shattered his helmet”, Morris said. She believes Alexander’s behaviour and mood changes “were identical to those seen in many football players today.

Morris said that toward the end of his life, Alexander the Great also suffered from very poor impulse control and would often show irrational anger toward people. “He actually murdered one of his closest mentors, a General Kleitus, at a dinner party. Apparently words were uttered that drove him into a rage and he impaled General Kleitus with his sword.”

Another instance of irrational behavior was his marching his forces through the Gedrosian desert when traveling from India to Babylon. “The soldiers had little food or water and many perished. But he sent other troops back by boat. Historians say he did this to punish his men, but he had never behaved like this before. He was always a good leader”, she said.

Morris believes firmly that Alexander the Great’s behavior closely fits the classic traumatic brain injury profile.
“He exhibited poor impulse control, unrestrained anger, and a lack of good judgment in critical instances,” she said. “I believe Alexander deserves better than to be thought of as an out-of-control drunk,” Morris said.  “A lot of warriors probably had this type of injury. At present, I am probably the only person in the world working on this thesis. Everyone thinks Alexander was an able-bodied warrior, but he wasn’t.”

Morris was born with mild cerebral which she says gave her an added impetus to research prominent historical figures with physical disabilities in ancient times from an archaeological/anthropological viewpoint including the Pharoah Tutankhamun.

Source:Jane K. Dove  http://www.lewisboroledger.com/33801/head-to-head-with-alexander-the-great/
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Offline magicmountain

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4097 on: March 30, 2016, 10:24:15 PM »
Amphipolis tomb confirmed to belong
to the era of Alexander the Great




Archaeologists and historians have confirmed that the tomb discovered at the Casta Hill of Amphipolis belongs to the era of Alexander the Great.

A detailed frieze depicting a warrior wearing a distinctive Macedonian harness and the weapons of the dead leading a funeral procession (see photo) is a clear indication of the era. The discovery was made almost 20 months after unearthing his tomb.

The warrior resembles other depictions of Alexander the Great. The style of the relief matches the estimated date of the monument, which, according to excavation chief archaeologist Katerina Peristeri, is estimated to belong to the last quarter of the 4th century. The frieze probably comes from the base of the famous Lion statue.

This find links the tomb with Alexander the Great, according to the experts.

Source: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2016/03/05/amphipolis-tomb-confirmed-to-belong-to-the-era-of-alexander-the-great/#sthash.DnepZArj.dpuf




One of two “Hephaistion” inscriptions found at the tomb

It has been claimed that the tomb comprises a monument in honour of Hephaestion,  friend, lover and fellow warrior of Alexander the Great (or even that he might be buried there) on the basis of  inscriptions found bearing his name. Andrew Chugg, author of The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great is unconvinced.

He believes an alternative explanation for the Hephaistion inscriptions is that they are "just ancient graffiti added after the destruction of the monument like virtually all the others on the same set of blocks". In addition he observed that the Hephaistion monograms "as so far presented are quite unclear. Only the largest letters are easily decipherable". As a result, Chugg beleives the inscriptions are "open to alternative interpretations".

According to Chugg, "Even if the Hephaistion graffiti can be verified to read as the archaeologists have transcribed them and if they are shown to be early features of the monument, it is still far from clear that they constitute formal contractual records of the dedication of the monument to Hephaistion".

http://greece.greekreporter.com/2015/10/10/did-the-amphipolis-tomb-commemorate-hephaistion/
« Last Edit: March 30, 2016, 11:06:19 PM by magicmountain »
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Offline magicmountain

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4098 on: March 30, 2016, 11:09:14 PM »


The revolution that ended the reign of beards occurred on September 30, 331 B.C., as Alexander the Great prepared for a decisive showdown with the Persian emperor for control of Asia. On that day, he ordered his men to shave. Yet from time immemorial in Greek culture, a smooth chin on a grown man had been taken as a sign of effeminacy or degeneracy. What can explain this unprecedented command?

When the commander Parmenio asked the reason, according to the ancient historian Plutarch, Alexander replied, “Don’t you know that in battles there is nothing handier to grasp than a beard?” But there is ample cause to doubt Plutarch’s explanation. Stories of beard-pulling in battles were myth rather than history. Plutarch and later historians misunderstood the order because they neglected the most relevant fact, namely that Alexander had dared to do what no self-respecting Greek leader had ever done before: shave his face, likening himself to the demigod Heracles, rendered in painting and sculpture in the immortal splendor of youthful, beardless nudity.

Alexander wished above all, as he told his generals before the battle, that each man would see himself as a crucial part of the mission. They would certainly see this more clearly if each of them looked more like their heroic commander.

Adapted from Of Beards and Men: The Revealing History of Facial Hair, by Christopher Oldstone-Moore, University of Chicago Press
Source: Christopher Oldstone-Moore http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/03/off-with-their-beards/426873/
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Offline magicmountain

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4099 on: March 30, 2016, 11:13:24 PM »


The Sanctuary of Isis at Dion

From March 24 through June 18, 2016, the Onassis Cultural Center NY a will present the exhibition ‘Gods and Mortals at Olympus: Ancient Dion, City of Zeus’, exploring the relationship between daily life in a city built on the slopes of Mount Olympus and the mythological abode of the gods.

The peaks of Mount Olympus and the plains of Pieria are mentioned for the first time in Homer’s Iliad and in the Homeric hymn Dion, the sacred place of Zeus, are first mentioned by Thucydides. Worshipped together with Zeus Olympias were the Muses, who had been born on the slopes of Mount Olympus. An annual celebration, the Olympiad of Dion, was held in their honour.

Dion was visited frequently by the Macedonian kings. They came to sacrifice to Zeus Olympios for the ceremonial purification of their army to take oaths of allegiance before the Gods and to celebrate the army and the people. Philip II and Alexander the Great celebrated victories here, and Alexander assembled his armies and performed magnificent sacrifices to Zeus here on the eve of his campaign to Asia in 334BC.

Dion is the site of a large temple dedicated to Zeus, as well as a series of temples to Demeter and to Isis (the Egyptian goddess was a favourite of Alexander).
 
See more at:
http://usa.greekreporter.com/2016/03/08/civilization-of-dion-exhibit-in-new-york-march-24-to-june-18/#sthash.c25u32wK.dpuf
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Offline magicmountain

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4100 on: March 30, 2016, 11:21:38 PM »


Tomb of Cyrus at Parsargadae

The Smithsonian’s Sackler Gallery of Asian Art in Washington D.C. has launched a new exhibit on the discovery and excavation of the ancient Achaemenid Persian capital of Pasargadae.

From February 13 to July 31, the museum will exhibit Heart of an Empire: Herzfeld’s Discovery of Pasargadae. Ernst Herzfeld (1879-1948) was a German archaeologist who first excavated Pasargadae, located not too far from the Iranian city of Shiraz, and confirmed that it was the site of the tomb of the founder of the Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great (who reigned from 559 to 530 BCE). Darius the Great (520-486 BCE) moved the capital to the more well-known Persepolis. It is particularly amazing that the tomb of Cyrus still survives whole, after over 2,500 years, despite some damage and neglect. Meanwhile, the city around the tomb has mostly crumbled to ruins.

The words “I am Cyrus, the king, an Achaemenid,” were found carved into a nearby column in three languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and Akkadian.

The tomb was ransacked during the conquests of Alexander the Great, who was furious at this act of sacrilege, as he greatly admired Cyrus. Indeed, Cyrus was one of the most admired individuals of ancient times because he allowed all people to conduct their own affairs with autonomy and ruled his empire benevolently with a generous hand.
 
In January or February 324, Alexander had reached the old religious capital of Persia, Pasargadae. Here, he visited the tomb of Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Achaemenid empire, who had lived two centuries before.

In the following account, Arrian describes the events in his Anabasis.

Aristobulus relates that Alexander found the tomb of Cyrus, son of Cambyses, broken into and robbed, and that this act of profanation caused him much distress. The tomb was in the royal park at Pasargadae; a grove of various sorts of trees had been planted round it; there were streams of running water and a meadow with lush grass. The base of the monument was rectangular, built of stone slabs cut square, and on top was a roofed chamber, also built of stone, with access through a door so narrow that only one man at a time - and a little one at that - could manage, with great difficulty, painfully to squeeze himself through.

Inside the chamber there was a golden coffin containing Cyrus' body, and a great divan with feet of hammered gold, spread with covers of some thick, brightly colored material, with a Babylonian rug on top. Tunics and a candys -or Median jacket- of Babylonian workmanship were laid out on the divan [1], and (Aristobulus says) Median trousers, various robes dyed in amethyst, purple, and many other colors, necklaces, scimitars, and inlaid earrings of gold and precious stones. A table stood by it, and in the middle of it lay the coffin which held Cyrus' body.

Within the enclosure, by the way which led up to the tomb, a small building had been constructed for the Magi who guarded it, a duty which had been handed down from father to son ever since the time of Cyrus' son, Cambyses. They had a grant from the King of a sheep a day, with an allowance of meal and wine, and one horse a month to sacrifice to Cyrus. …

Alexander had always intended, after his conquest of Persia, to visit the tomb of Cyrus [2]; and now, when he did so, he found that all it contained except the divan and the coffin had been removed. Even the royal remains had not escaped desecration [3], for the thieves had taken the lid from the coffin and thrown out the body … Aristobulus tells us that he himself received orders from Alexander to put the monument into a state of thorough repair …

Alexander had the Magians who guarded the monument arrested and put to the torture, hoping to extort from them the names of the culprits; but even under torture they were silent, neither confessing their own guilt nor accusing anybody else; so, as they could not be convicted of any sort of complicity in the crime, Alexander released them.


Source: http://thediplomat.com/2016/02/discovering-cyrus-the-greats-secrets-in-modern-iran/

POSTSCRIPT

In 323 BCE, when Alexander returned to Pasargadae, a Persian noble, descended from Cyrus called Orxines presented expensive gifts to Alexander and his entourage, but deliberately ignored and insulted Alexander's lover, the Persian eunuch Bagoas. It is claimed that as a result, Bagoas turned Alexander against Orxines, accusing him of stealing from the tomb of Cyrus The Great, and Orxines was executed.
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Offline magicmountain

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4101 on: March 30, 2016, 11:31:19 PM »


Handel's dramatic and vivid ode with music Alexander’s Feast  is based on a poem by John Dryden. The scene is a banquet put on by Alexander the Great where Timotheus the court musician contemplates the harmony between humanity and the universe.


Watch and listen here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzQwFHJlkgo
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Offline Blupares

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4102 on: May 27, 2016, 08:30:39 AM »


Excavation of the possible/probable Tomb of Aristotle, Alexander's mentor is being announced to the world:

http://greece.greekreporter.com/2016/05/26/aristotles-2400-year-old-tomb-found-at-stagira-photographs/

Offline CellarDweller115

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4103 on: June 23, 2016, 12:02:23 PM »
Hello Ultimate Brokeback Forum Members.

Recently, an image with a copyright marking was posted on the forum. This resulted in Dave Cullen being contacted by the attorney of the photographer who owns the rights to the image.

A lawsuit is now possible, with the maximum fine against the forum in the amount of $150,000.00.

It is vital that no one posts copyrighted images on the forum. It is stealing. The posting of copyrighted images cannot and will not be tolerated, and anyone knowingly posting copyrighted images and putting the forum in jeopardy this way will be banned.

Usually, a copyrighted photo will have this familiar symbol on it:

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If you come across an image that his this marking on it, it has a copyright on it, and can't be used publicly unless the poster pays for it.  Another way to tell if an image has a copyright, when you search the images on Google, when you select the image, instead of selecting  "view image" click on "visit page".  If this  brings you to a page with the image and a list of prices, the image carries a copyright and you need to pay to download it.  To download it without paying for it is stealing.

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Offline Black Skald

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Re: Travels with Alexander the Great
« Reply #4104 on: December 03, 2016, 04:14:44 AM »
Subject to more work or died a heroic death?  :-X
 It's a shame it would be, only to find, and understand that the cemetery here (( >:D
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